Water is the most important thing for life on earth. Here it makes any kind of life and its existence possible. It maintains ecological balance in the biosphere. Drinking, bathing, energy production, irrigation of crops, disposal of sewage, production process, etc. Clean water is very important to fulfill many objectives. Increasing population is leading to rapid industrialization and unplanned urbanization leaving large and small sources of waste in the water, which is ultimately degrading the quality of water. The self-purifying capacity of water is decreasing by the reduction of ozone (which kills dangerous micro-organisms) available in the water due to direct and continuous mixing of such pollutants in water. Water pollutants are spoiling the chemical, physical and biological characteristics of water which is very dangerous for all plants, humans and animals all over the world. Many important species of animals and plants have died due to water pollutants. This is a global problem affecting both developed and developing countries. Mining, agriculture, fisheries, stockbreeding, various industries, urban human activities, urbanization, increasing number of construction industries, domestic sewage etc. are polluting the entire water on a large scale.
There are many sources of water pollution (point sources and non-point sources or scattered sources) depending on the specificity of the water content emanating from different sources. Includes industry, sewage treatment plant, waste landfill, point source pipelines, sewer, sewer etc. from the place of hazardous waste, leakage from oil storage tanks which drop waste directly into water sources. The scattered sources of water pollution are agricultural grounds, a lot of livestock fodder, parking lots and surface water from the roads, storm runoff from urban roads, etc. which mix the pollutants released from them into large water sources. The nonpoint pollutant source participates in large scale water pollution which is very difficult and expensive to control.